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How much do you know about power adapters?

Power Adapter
The power adapter is a power supply conversion device for small portable electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet and other electronic appliances. It is generally composed of shell, transformer, inductor, capacitor, control IC, PCB board, PWM power management chip including protocol and other components. Its working principle is to convert the input alternating current into direct current; according to the connection method, it can be divided into plug-in Wall and desktop.
The power adapter has derived different physical interfaces and charging power with the different needs of different mobile phone manufacturers. The current power adapters mainly have the following types: the physical interface type of the mobile phone power adapter can be divided into two types: Type A and Type C; the charging power from the power adapter can be divided into 5W, 10W, 15W, 18W, 22.5W , 40W, 48W, 60W, 120W and other types; from the charging protocol type, it can be divided into PD power adapter, QC power adapter, Huawei power adapter, AFC power adapter, PE power adapter, etc. Although there are many types of power adapters, different adapters have problems of incompatibility. However, fortunately, the functions of current power adapters are becoming more and more complete, and a power adapter with different physical jacks has emerged, which is compatible with a variety of different protocols and is compatible with a variety of power, voltage, and current. It is believed that in the near future, there will be a power adapter that can unify related physical interfaces and protocols.

Power Supply PCB
The core part of every mobile phone power adapter lies in the PCB board. Chips, capacitors, inductors, PCB boards and other components are soldered on the PCB. Each component of the PCB board plays a different role, ensuring that the electrical performance of the entire circuit can be monitored in real time, to ensure that the circuit will not have problems such as overvoltage and overtemperature that damage the electrical performance. In this regard, different manufacturers have different design schemes for self-designed power adapters. Mainly reflected in the use of components, circuit design, chip design and so on. Power adapters with different powers, circuit design, use of components and chip design are also different.

The power adapter converts the input AC power into the output DC power. This function is realized by the combination of chips, capacitors, inductors, PCB boards and other components. Different functions of different components, we introduce them one by one.

The first is solid-state capacitive filtering. The solid-state capacitor filter has stable impedance over a wide temperature range, suitable for power supply filtering; and it has high stability, which is especially important in overclocking. Solid-state capacitor filtering is mainly used to effectively provide a stable and sufficient power supply. Y capacitors are generally used to avoid output interference.

Thermistor is used to reduce the power-on surge; the varistor is used for overvoltage protection; the two together constitute an anti-surge protection module, which can effectively reduce the damage of surge to power supply equipment, and also has a certain anti-surge protection module. Thunder effect.

Slow-blow fuse: Slow-blow fuse is also called time-delay fuse. Its time-delay characteristics show that it remains intact when a non-fault pulse current occurs in the circuit and can provide protection for long-term overload;

Transformer: mainly converts AC voltage into DC voltage. Generally, the voltage transformer can perform voltage transformation, current transformation, impedance transformation, isolation, voltage regulation (magnetic saturation transformer), etc.; capacitor: DC blocking, bypass (decoupling); Schottky diode: used to improve the efficiency of synchronous rectification.

In addition to the above, there are various types of chips, semiconductors, rectifiers, controllers and other components.

Post time: Apr-12-2022